Samar, Philippines

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A typical farmland in SamarV. ECONOMIC SECTOR

This agricultural riceland in Brgy. Quezon, San Jorge, Samar is frequently flooded for almost 40 years now.  Once considered rice granary in Samar, massive logging during the 60’s and continued kaingin at present have caused this perennial flood problem which brought agricultural losses estimated at P180 million a year.


A. Agriculture

A.1 Area

The province has a total land area of 559,100 hectares.  Of this, 151,131 hectares or 27.30 percent is agricultural land.

The potential irrigable land of the province of Samar is 15,782 hectares. The total irrigated area is 2,940.93 hectares, however out of this only 1,039 hectares are operational, 1, 503 hectares for rehabilitation, 398.92 hectares totally damaged.  The total irrigated area of 2,940.92 hectares is only 18.63 percent of the total potential irrigable area.

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A.2 Crop Production

Rootcrops in Samar
A rootcrop vendor at the Catbalogan market

Ninety percent (90%) of the population of the province of Samar is dependent on rice for their food intake; hence it is staple food of the Samareños.  In the year 2000, total palay production under the Agrikulturang MakaMASA program, registered at 40,579.48 metric tons, of which 9,751.74 metric tons came from irrigated fields; 29,110 metric tons, rainfed/lowlands; and 1,717.74 metric tons, uplands.  The decrease in production for this year could be attributed to the occurrence of rat infestation in the entire province and typhoon damage reported which occurred in October 2000.

The total area harvested for the same year (2000) was 16,516.86 hectares.  Of this total, 3,102.45 hectares or 18.78% was irrigated; 12,173.66 hectares or 73.70% rainfed; and, 1,240.75 hectares or 7.51%, upland.

Total corn production (white) recorded at 613.09 metric tons (MakaMASA Report 2000) and its average yield for this year registered at 1.61 metric tons/hectare.  Comparing the average yield for 1999 and 2000, the decrease in production to 59% could be attributed to unsuitable weather.

Vegetable production was very minimal.  The province was only able to produce 29.2 metric tons of various vegetables for the year 2000.

Selected root crops such as cassava, sweet potato, gabi and ubi registered a total production of 16,073 metric tons.  Cassava represents 45.36% of the total production with an average yield of 1.27 metric tons/hectare.

Coconut production in Samar
Coconut is still the main commercial crop of the province. Here, a young boy is extracting a coco meat using an electric motor.

The Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS) also reported a banana production of 31,301.3 metric tons in an area harvested at 4,817 hectares with an average yield of 6.498 metric tons/hectare.  This performance could be attributed to the campaign of commercialization and the adoption of farmers of desuckering method.

Coconut is the main commercial crop in the province, which are mostly concentrated in coastal areas.  Total coconut area for the year 2000 was 563,670 hectares.  The total number of coconut trees was 10,099, 872 of which 7,322, 525 (72.5%) are bearing trees and 2,777,347 (27.5%) are non-bearing trees.  The total coconut production was 270,360,381 nuts with an average yield of 37 nuts/tree/year and its equivalent copra production was 57,290 metric tons.  It recorded a remarkable increase of 58.08% from its 1999 production.

For CY 2004, there was only a slight growth (1.56%) in palay production, which totaled 66,114 metric tons, from 65,097 metric tons in 2003. Corn production as of CY 2003, recorded a total of 4,546 metric tons and was up by 5.52% or 4,797 metric tons in 2004.

Likewise, total production in vegetables (leafy and fruit) for the year exceeded the total production of 2003 (487.50 MT) by 22.27%, equivalent to 596.09 metric tons, of which 93.74% came from fruit vegetables (see table below).

Type of Crop 2004 2003
Harvested Area
Harvested Area
 Corn (White) 5,343.00    4,797.00    5,347.00    4,546.00   
 Sweet Potato
 Fruit (Banana) 3,833.00   103,860.50   3,833.00   108,380.35  

Root crops on the other hand rose production to 16,871.94 metric tons in 2004 or 2.08% higher than the previous year. Cassava is still the leading root crop for the year.

Banana fruit, which could be seen in the market all year round has lowered its production by 4.17% from 108,380.35 metric tons in the year 2003 down to 103,860.50 metric tons in 2004.

Palay production data with intervention (see table below) includes the use of hybrid and certified seeds together with the use of organic and inorganic fertilizers, while the without intervention includes the use of only good seeds with or without fertilizers.

Data on the tables below showed a significant difference in the average yields for palay production using hybrid and certified seeds plus the application of organic and inorganic fertilizers compared with palay production using only good seeds.

With Intervention Palay Production under the GMA-Rice Program


November 2003 - April 2004 Cropping May to October 2004 Cropping
AH Prod. Ave. Yield AH Prod. Ave. Yield
 Irrigated 242.75    914.31    3.80    309.50    1,052.45    3.40   
 Rainfed 238.50    782.46    3.28    506.81    1,649.06    3.25   
 Hybrid 74.13    395.05    5.32    69.20    358.94    5.19   
Total 555.38   2,091.82   3.77   885.51   3,060.45   3.46  

Without Intervention Palay Production under the GMA-Rice Program

Type November 2003 - April 2004 Cropping May to October 2004 Cropping
AH Prod. Ave. Yield AH Prod. Ave. Yield
 Irrigated 960.70    3,271.11    3.40    863.75    2,591.25    3.00   
 Rainfed 4,389.34    12,090.58    2.75    3,972.94    10,664.03    2.68   
 Upland 117.00    290.00    2.48    551.33    984.10    1.80   


5,467.04   15,651.69   2.86   5,388.02   14,239.38   2.64  

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A.3 Livestock and Poultry

Chicken, as of 2004 recorded the highest meat consumed in the province, which comprised 80% of the total heads slaughtered in abattoir and dressing plant. This was due to price increase of other meats sold in the market.

Type of Meat 2004 2003
(Head) (MT)
  Carabeef 1,517    617.80   
  Beef 150    116.10   
  Pork 86,417    1,989.20   
  Chicken Meat 349,577    436.80   

A.4 Breeding Stations

The province has three (3) Artificial Breeding Centers, maintained by the Office of the Provincial Agriculturist (OPA) located at San Agustin, Gandara; Tominamos, Sta. Rita; and, OPA Compound, Catbalogan; and one outreach station in Basey.  The centers conduct artificial insemination services to upgrade the native animal stocks.  In the year 2000 the three boars maintained in OPA Compound had produced 40 heads of offspring through artificial insemination.

Moreover, private hog raisers through AI services rendered by the center chiefs produced 197 heads of offspring.  There were also 192 heads of carabaos that were artificially inseminated and were able to produce 82 heads of calves that genetically improved calf drop.  Weaned calves and piglets dispersed to qualified farmers and 4-H Club members in support to the establishment of income-generating projects.

The province has two field facilities: the R.T. Diaz Freshwater Hatchery in San Agustin, Gandara; and, Mussel Farm in Jiabong.  The fingerlings (tilapia and carp) and mussels produced were dispersed to fish farmers and mussel farm beneficiaries.

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B. Commerce and Industry 

B.1 Labor, Industry and Marketing

Based on the 2000 DTI Report, the province posted a total investment of P168.405799M, which was 51.5 percent higher than its target.  Likewise, the province’s export of $13.546907M was almost doubled from its annual target.

A total of 7,258 employment was generated for the year.  It was in the Aqua Marine Products (1,760) and CARP Programs (1,426) that recorded the highest number of employment.

The total number of registered establishments in 1996 was 2,274, with trading (wholesale and retail trade) having the most number of 1,258 establishments.

In 2004, industries such as gift, toys & house wares (GTH), trading, manufacturing, food processing and agro-production generated a total investment of P32.93256 M and 395 employment as a result of various assistance extended to new and identified clients.

The focus of assistance to Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) were on areas of improving access to financing particularly the food processors through financial facilitation with Quedancor and other foreign sources.

With regards to Business Regulation, DTI office has reflected 993 Business Name (BN) registered firms wherein 713 are original and 280 renewals.

Major Industries: a.) Integrated Mussel Industry (Jiabong)
  b.) Coco Oil Industry (Calbayog)
  c.) Tinapa Industry (Calbayog)
  d.) Native Cheese Processing (Gandara)
  e.) Abaca Industry
  f.) Ticog Industry (Basey)
  g.) Fishing Industry
  h.) Copra Industry

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B.2 Financial Institutions

There are ten (10) banks operating in the province with nine (9) branches based in Catbalogan.  Some rural banks are also operating in various municipalities of the province.  It offers loans and other services aside from the regular savings deposits.

Name of Banks


 1. Allied Bank   Catbalogan
 2. China Banking Corporation   Catbalogan
 3. Development Bank of the Phil.   Catbalogan
 4. Land Bank of the Phil.   Catbalogan,  Calbayog City
 5. MetroBank   Catbalogan,  Calbayog City
 6. PCI-Equitable Bank   Catbalogan
 7. Philippine National Bank   Catbalogan,  Calbayog City
 8. RCBC   Catbalogan,  Calbayog City
 9. Rural Bank   Calbayog City,  Basey,  Calbiga,  Gandara,  Sta. Margarita
 10. United Coconut Planters Bank   Calbayog City


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